Staving Off Dementia

Nov. 8, 2013

By Medical Discovery News

“When I was younger, I could remember anything, whether it had happened or not; but my faculties are decaying now and soon I shall be so I cannot remember any but the things that never happened.”

While American novelist Mark Twain can invariably add his iconic sense of humor to any situation, it is no laughing matter when patients lose their memories and cognitive function to dementia. And for their family members, there is hardly anything harder than caring for a loved one who can no longer remember them or any shared experiences. But lowering a person’s risk of dementia may be as simple as changing their lifestyle.

The incidence of dementia increases with age. As the average age of Americans increase, the number of people with dementia also increases. In 2010, more than 30 million people worldwide had dementia, and this figure is estimated to more than triple by 2050.

Despite the many medical advances over the past 20 years, there are no effective pharmacological therapies for dementia yet. Some drugs are being evaluated and still others are in development, but it could be some time before there is a truly successful treatment for this disease. 

However, studies have uncovered risk factors that can lead to dementia, such as low physical and mental activity, obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. The good news is that all these risk factors can be controlled by changes in a person’s lifestyle and behavior.

A group of scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm examined the effects of lifestyle modification on dementia risks. One of the strongest correlations to reducing the risk of dementia is increasing physical activity. Changing from a sedentary lifestyle to one with at least moderate physical activity will also improve cognitive performance. Both aerobic exercise and strength training may delay of the onset of dementia. 

For those with nutritional deficiencies, taking vitamin supplements did help prevent dementia onset, but those with normal levels did not affect their dementia risk by taking supplements. 

Computer games have become a popular way to enhance mental abilities in older people. There are some positive effects of gaming on cognitive performance, but these effects decline with age.  A recent study showed that improvements in language skills and reasoning abilities lasted for a full year after computerized training. While encouraging, more clinical trials are needed to establish the benefits of these activities on cognitive functions and the delay of dementia.

For now, the best advice to delay or prevent dementia is to engage in physical exercise and maintain a healthy weight and nutrition.

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Statins Can Save Your Eyes

May 10, 2013

By Medical Discovery News

Today, 2.7 million Americans over the age of 40 are suffering from an eye disease that slowly robs them of their sight. And about half of them don’t even know they have it, despite the fact that a comprehensive eye exam will easily detect it. While there is still no cure for glaucoma, a new study shows that statins, one of the most commonly used class of drugs, might actually prevent it.

Glaucoma usually occurs when the pressure of the fluid in the eye slowly increases, eventually damaging the optic nerve. The optic nerve is actually a bundle of nerves that carries information from the eye’s retina to the brain, where images are interpreted. The fluid in the eye, called the aqueous humor, circulates around inside the eye. This fluid provides nourishment to parts of the eye that do not have blood vessels and maintains the appropriate pressure inside the eye, both of which are keys to normal vision. A small amount of the fluid is produced every day while an equal amount flows out. With glaucoma, the fluid does not leave the eye as it should, gradually increasing the pressure on the eye as fluid accumulates.

A nationwide study by the University of Michigan School of Medicine found that statins like Lipitor and Zocor can lower the risk of developing glaucoma. The largest study ever done on this topic followed 300,000 people aged 60 and over who were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, or high levels of unhealthy fats called lipids. In taking statins continuously for two years, the subjects reduced their risk of developing the most common kind of glaucoma by almost 10 percent.

The most common type of glaucoma, called primary open-angle glaucoma, is caused by not enough of the fluid draining. Other types of glaucoma can be caused by the iris blocking the eye’s fluid from draining, inheriting genes for the disease, injury to the eye, tumors, or even steroids. Treatment for glaucoma depends on the type of glaucoma, its severity, and its response to treatment. Medicated eye drops can either increase the drainage of the fluid or reduce its production. Several types of surgery and laser treatments can improve the fluid drainage. Medical marijuana can reduce pressure on the eye, but only for a short time and is not a recommended treatment. 

For the millions of the people already taking statins, the study revealed a surprising added benefit. Leaders of the study do not yet know why statins have this effect, but think it may be due to the drug increasing blood flow to the optic nerve and retinal nerve cells and pushing out extra fluid, alleviating pressure in the eye.

Annual eye exams are a good addition to a yearly physical, especially for those most at risk for glaucoma: blacks, Hispanics, seniors, those with diabetes, and those with a family history. The damage caused by glaucoma is irreversible, so prevention and early detection are currently the best way to combat the disease.

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